Vaccination

ОРЗ и «бактериальные вакцины» для борьбы с ними

Acute respiratory diseases are the most frequent pathology of childhood: every year children suffer from 2-3 to 10-12 ARI, which are caused by more than 150 pathogens and their variants. With the beginning of the visit to children's preschool institutions, respiratory morbidity sharply increases, so that in the first year of the visit, half of the children suffer 6 or more ARI, forming a group of "often ill children". And although in the 2-3 years of the visit the incidence declines, about 10% of children remain in the group of often ill children. As a rule, these are children with an allergic predisposition, which is manifested, in the main, by vivid manifestations of ARVI. Frequent acute respiratory diseases result in large economic losses.

ARI and "bacterial vaccines" to control them

Frequently ill children - not a diagnosis, but only an observation group; it includes underdeveloped children with specific nosological forms - relapsing bronchitis, incl. Obstructive, mild asthma, chronic tonsillitis and even chronic pneumonia and cystic fibrosis. So, before including the child in the group of dispensary observation for frequent morbidity, it is necessary to conduct a survey to exclude a specific pathology.

The lack of clear differences in the clinic of viral and bacterial ARI, the impossibility of express diagnosis of their etiology, the fear of missing a bacterial complication leads to excessive prescription of antibiotics to often sick children. However, antibiotics in ARVI do not have preventive efficacy, they only increase the incidence of bacterial complications.

In the arsenal of immunoprophylaxis there are vaccines against a number of pathogens ARD (Hib, pneumococcal, pertussis, diphtheria, influenza vaccines), however, against the main pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections, specific vaccines are not yet available.

Under these conditions, it is possible to create a large number of means to reduce the respiratory incidence rate. The annotations of these drugs usually emphasize their immunomodulatory effect, usually without a clear decoding. These are thymus preparations (T-activin, Timalin, etc.), and herbal remedies (dibazol, eleutherococcus, echinacea), and vitamins and trace elements, and homeopathic remedies (Aflubin, Anaferon), and stimulants (pentoxyl, diucifon, polyoxidonium) , and much more. Most of these funds, despite the increased advertising, do not have convincing evidence of effectiveness in reducing the respiratory incidence despite long-term use. And in respect of many of them, clear negative results were obtained. Moreover, the use of immunomodulators without special evidence is simply unacceptable.

Прививка против вируса папилломы человека (ВПЧ)

Of more than 120 types of human papillomavirus, more than 30 types infect the genital tract. Infection of women with HPV is an important factor in the development of cervical cancer, HPV was detected in 99.7% of biopsies in both flat-epithelial carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer.

 

Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV)

Development of cervical cancer as a result of HPV infection passes through a series of histological progenitors - intraepithelial neoplasia of mucosal 2 and 3 degree (CIN 2/3) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). HPV can cause intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva (VIN 2/3) and the vagina (VaIN 2/3) and 35-50% of all cancers of this localization. HPV also causes cancer of the penis, anus, and oral cavity.

Infection with HPV occurs with the onset of sexual activity, its intensity increases with the increase in the number of sexual partners. In Denmark at the age of 15-17 years, HPV infection was detected in 60% of the examined, with age, the infection of HPV decreases. Most infections occur subclinically, but often enough changes on infected mucous membranes progress to the development of papillomas or cancer.

All HPV are divided into two groups: high and low oncogenic risk. 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, 82 are the high-risk groups. In Europe, the most common types of oncogenic virus are types 16 and 18, which were detected in 85% of cases of cervical cancer. Less common are oncogenic types 31, 33, 45, 52.

The group of low oncogenic risk includes 6 and 11 types of HPV, responsible for 90% of cases of genital condylomatosis (in the world about 30 million new cases of condylomatosis are registered annually); they are able to cause intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix of only a low gradation (CIN 1). These same types of HPV cause recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRS) in children and adults, as well as a significant proportion of skin warts.

Cervical cancer ranks second among malignant tumors of the reproductive organs in women and second only to breast cancer. The world annually diagnoses about 470 thousand new cases of cervical cancer, which is 14.2% of all malignant neoplasms in women.

Cervical cancer is a significant problem for public health in Russia, in 2004 it was registered in 12,700 women - about 5% of all malignant tumors and 31% of malignant neoplasms of female genitalia (12 per 100,000 women) - 5th ranked place in the structure of cancer.

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