Acute respiratory diseases are the most frequent pathology of childhood: every year children suffer from 2-3 to 10-12 ARI, which are caused by more than 150 pathogens and their variants. With the beginning of the visit to children's preschool institutions, respiratory morbidity sharply increases, so that in the first year of the visit, half of the children suffer 6 or more ARI, forming a group of "often ill children". And although in the 2-3 years of the visit the incidence declines, about 10% of children remain in the group of often ill children. As a rule, these are children with an allergic predisposition, which is manifested, in the main, by vivid manifestations of ARVI. Frequent acute respiratory diseases result in large economic losses.
Frequently ill children - not a diagnosis, but only an observation group; it includes underdeveloped children with specific nosological forms - relapsing bronchitis, incl. Obstructive, mild asthma, chronic tonsillitis and even chronic pneumonia and cystic fibrosis. So, before including the child in the group of dispensary observation for frequent morbidity, it is necessary to conduct a survey to exclude a specific pathology.
The lack of clear differences in the clinic of viral and bacterial ARI, the impossibility of express diagnosis of their etiology, the fear of missing a bacterial complication leads to excessive prescription of antibiotics to often sick children. However, antibiotics in ARVI do not have preventive efficacy, they only increase the incidence of bacterial complications.
In the arsenal of immunoprophylaxis there are vaccines against a number of pathogens ARD (Hib, pneumococcal, pertussis, diphtheria, influenza vaccines), however, against the main pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections, specific vaccines are not yet available.
Under these conditions, it is possible to create a large number of means to reduce the respiratory incidence rate. The annotations of these drugs usually emphasize their immunomodulatory effect, usually without a clear decoding. These are thymus preparations (T-activin, Timalin, etc.), and herbal remedies (dibazol, eleutherococcus, echinacea), and vitamins and trace elements, and homeopathic remedies (Aflubin, Anaferon), and stimulants (pentoxyl, diucifon, polyoxidonium) , and much more. Most of these funds, despite the increased advertising, do not have convincing evidence of effectiveness in reducing the respiratory incidence despite long-term use. And in respect of many of them, clear negative results were obtained. Moreover, the use of immunomodulators without special evidence is simply unacceptable.