Overview of drugs

ИОВ Малыш при аденоидах для детей: как принимать, отзывы

One of the most unpleasant and rather dangerous problems of childhood is an increase in adenoids. While these formations from the lymphoid tissue are small, they not only do not harm, but, on the contrary, help to keep the infection from penetrating into the body, and the body itself helps to fight diseases, strengthening immunity. But increasing in size under the influence of negative factors, adenoids become an obstacle to nasal breathing and can themselves provoke infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. In such a situation, sitting with folded hands, is not good. It is necessary to take urgent measures to help the baby return to breathing normally. For example, the homeopathic preparation "Job" in adenoids helps to do this even with a neglected form of the disease, which is treated primarily surgically.

Adenoids and homeopathy

Adenoids are physiologically conditioned formations, consisting of lymphoid tissue. In the fact that they are in humans, there is nothing terrible, because adenoids perform an important function and for the time being protect the body from infection. But constantly taking a blow at themselves, they themselves can get sick.

In short, the situation looks like this. The bacteria and viruses that enter the body through the upper respiratory tract (mouth and nose) are inhibited by lymphoid formations located above the tonsils and settle on them. If a child is sick often, adenoids can not cope with them, and under the influence of pathogenic microorganisms the body becomes inflamed.

The weakening of adenoids due to the inflammatory process leads to the fact that they can not do their job well. Following the adenoids, the immune system also weakens. Inflammation in the adenoids in turn leads to tissue hypertrophy, i.e. Their uncontrolled sprawl, which the immune system can no longer control.

In itself, the proliferation of lymphoid tissue would not be so bad if it did not block the beginning of the nasal tracts on the back wall of the pharynx located nearby. Constant nasal congestion leads to the fact that the child gets used to breathe through the mouth, which is fundamentally wrong and even dangerous. With nasal breathing, a part of bacteria and viruses, as well as dust and allergens, are retained by special villi in the nasal passages and are escaped with the help of a special mucous secretion. The adenoids served for these purposes, but now they are no longer capable of inhibiting bacteria and viruses. And even worse, they themselves become a source of infection.

This situation leads to the fact that the child begins to suffer more respiratory pathologies, the process includes not only the upper, but also the lower respiratory tract (bronchi, trachea, lungs). Diseases against a weakened immune system are more severe and often transform into a chronic form.

But frequent colds are just one tip of the iceberg called adenoiditis (inflammation of the adenoids). In fact, the increase in adenoids greatly changes the child's life for the worse. He is observed: sleep and nutrition disorders, impaired cognitive abilities, hearing problems, when the inflammatory process extends to the area of the auditory tube, unaesthetic change in the shape of the face, psychological problems, etc.

The prognosis of the disease depends on the degree of adenoids. If pathology of the first degree, which is almost invisible externally and only slightly complicates the nasal breathing at night, is treated medically, then in the second stage of the disease, the issue of surgical removal of glands may already arise. The third (neglected) degree of adenoids doctors insist on treating only in an operative way, because it is related to the virtual impossibility of breathing through the nose.

But if in traditional medicine the overlapping of the nasal passages by the adenoid tissue is more than half the indication for the appointment of an operation to remove adenoids (and sometimes tonsils), then homeopathy looks at this problem differently. Why remove what protects the body, if you can try to return it the previous functionality? After removal of adenoids is only the restoration of nasal breathing, while the organism is deprived of obstacles for the infectious factor.

Alas, traditional medicine and pharmacology do not yet have an effective drug that could, in difficult situations, help restore the original size and function to adenoids. Anti-inflammatory drugs help only at the initial stages of pathology.

But homeopathy, which many doctors consider pseudoscience and absolutely not recognize, has in its arsenal useful drugs that help with adenoids of any degree, and one of such homeopathic drugs is "Job". In fact, the full name of the drug sounds like Barbaris Comp Iov-Malysh, but many doctors and parents used to call it "Job-Baby".

The very name of the drug says that it is intended for the treatment of children. In principle, in adulthood problems with tonsils are considered the exception rather than the rule. The fact is that by the age of 10-14 adenoids are atrophied, because a fully formed immune system no longer needs their help. The most common patients with ENT in connection with the increase in adenoids are children 3-4 years old.

And then the question arises: how to enter at this age, if lymphoid growths are already significantly hinder the breathing of the child? I do not want to remove the natural defense, and even the surgical operation, no matter how it is done, is a traumatic situation, and even involves a certain risk. And traditional drug therapy in neglected cases is no longer effective.

You can, of course, take the risk of waiting until the problem of 12 disappears by itself, but it will take several years to wait. How much time does the child have to endure? How does this expectation affect the health and development of the baby?

Антибиотики при рожистом воспалении ноги, голени руки, лица

Probably, the reader more than once had to meet people on the street with inflamed swollen purple spots on the skin of the face, hands or feet. This disease is called erysipelas because of the skin's intense pink color. The appearance of a bright spot indicates that the affected tissues are highly inflamed, and the cause of this condition is the infection that has penetrated the tissue through a small wound. And since any bacterial infection is treated only with the help of antimicrobial agents, antibiotics for erysipelas are the basis of therapy.

What is erysipelas?

Erysipelas is a disease of soft tissues caused by ingestion of a bacterial pathogen through the damaged skin. The causative agent of this pathology is considered to be group A streptococci , which secretes enzymes and toxins that promote the development of a strong inflammatory process on the skin and mucous membranes.

The inflammatory process begins at the site of entry of pathogenic microorganisms and spreads to nearby areas. Foci of inflammation in most cases can be seen on the hands and feet of patients, as well as in the face where the inflammation gradually passes to the mucous membranes and skin around the neck. Stop the further spread of the process with erysipelas and prevent recurrences of the disease, which are quite possible in case of its chronic course (there are cases when relapses occurred up to 6 times a year), antibiotics of various groups help.

Despite the fact that the disease is caused by a bacterial infection, it does not have an epidemic nature. Infection is not transmitted from person to person. So, the maintenance of patients in quarantine conditions is not required.

This pathology is more common in the female environment. Men are less likely to get sick. Most patients are over 40-50 years old and overweight, many have diabetes mellitus or pre-diabetic condition, when any wound heals very hard, keeping the risk of infection for a long time.

By the way, with long-term non-healing wounds, as in the case of diabetes mellitus, not one, but several types of pathogenic microorganisms can be found in the wound, which complicates the course of the disease and requires the use of antimicrobial agents of a wide spectrum of action.

The erysipelas is such a pathology that not only negatively affects the appearance of a person, causing a certain psychological discomfort, but is also dangerous with its complications. In the erysipelas, pus and tissue necrosis can be formed, which is dangerous for the development of sepsis (blood poisoning). In the field of inflammation there is a strong edema, the tissues are tightly compressed, lymph flow and limb mobility (elephantia) are disturbed. Chronic forms of pathology in some cases became even the cause of a serious decline in performance, and a person became disabled.

Treatment of erysipelas with antibiotics

Humanity has not yet come up with a more effective way to combat bacterial infection than the use of antimicrobial agents. Let's just say, antibiotics were developed for this purpose in due time, and their active use in erysipelas, which is an infectious pathology, is quite logical.

Yes, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or corticosteroids (SCS) can also cope with inflammation, but they can not prevent recurrence of the disease, since they do not have sufficient antibacterial activity.

The fact that the erysipelas is caused by such a common bacterium as streptococcus greatly facilitates the task of treating this pathology, because in fact all antibiotics are active against this pathogen: from old kind penicillins and ending with the latest achievements of the pharmacological industry in the field of antibacterial agents.

The problem, as in many other cases, is the development of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms due to uncontrolled intake of antibiotics according to the doctor's prescription and without it, and the emergence of mutant new resistant strains of long-known bacteria. This situation leads to the fact that among the many antibiotics it is not always possible to find the one whose action will be disastrous in relation to the causative agent of the disease.

Earlier erysipelas can be effectively treated with natural and semisynthetic penicillins or cephalosporins, which perfectly cope with streptococcal infection. However, beta-lactam antibiotics do not cope with the new strains that produce a special enzyme beta-lactamase, which destroys the antimicrobial drug.

A modern approach to the treatment of erysipelas involves the use of protected penicillins and combined cephalosporins, in which the integrity of the beta-lactam antibiotic is protected by a special component (most often clavuonic acid).

The fact that erysipelas develops under the influence of bacteria of the streptococcal group does not cause doctors doubts. However, quite often other pathogens join this pathogen, so physicians prefer antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action. Especially when it comes to the erysipelas, developing against a background of diabetes mellitus or bullous form of inflammation with the formation of multiple vesicles. The presence of pus in the wound can also indicate a rich bacterial composition of the lesion.

To date, despite the development of new effective groups of antibiotics, many doctors still consider antimicrobial preparations of the penicillin line to be the best antibiotic for erysipelas. Among penicillin antibiotics penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin in combination with clavuonic acid and oxacillin are popular.

The cephalosporin series of antibiotics used for erysipelas is represented by cephalexin, cephradin and antibiotics of later generations, at the choice of the treating physician. The resistance of the antibiotic to the causative agent of the disease can be established with the help of bacterial analysis, which will make the treatment more effective.

True, antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins (including beta-lactamase-resistant drugs) are effective in treating streptococci, they often cause severe reactions of intolerance, which means that they are not suitable for everyone. In this case, doctors need to look for effective drugs among other groups of antibiotics: macrolides (azithromycin, oletetrine, oleandomycin, etc.), sulfonamides (synthomycin), carbapenems (imipenem), nitrofurans, tetracyclines, etc. Additionally, the therapeutic regimen may include lincosamides, for example, clindomycin, which reduces the toxic effect of bacteria in the streptococcal group.

Sometimes doctors resort to the help of combined ani- biotics (for example, oletetrin, a combination of tetracyclines and macrolides) and antibiotics of new previously unknown groups (daptomycin, oxazolidones: linezolid, amisolide, zenix, zyvox, raulin routec). To help fluoroquinolones in the case of erysipelas do not resort, because this group of antibiotics is used mainly in severe cases of purulent infections.

Antibiotics for erysipelas can be used for systemic (pills and injections) and for local (mainly creams and ointments) applications, but it is still a case of skin disease and underlying soft tissues. Among the effective local antimicrobial agents are tetracycline, erythromycin and sintomycin ointment.

It should immediately be said that the choice of an effective drug is performed by a physician, regardless of the localization of the pathological process, i.e. With erysipelas, hands, feet, only the lower leg or face, including mucous membranes, the same antibiotics can be used. It is important that the antibiotic chosen by the doctor can cope with streptococcal infection that caused inflammation of soft tissues, and other pathogenic microorganisms that could enter the body through the wound on the body.

When asked whether antibiotics can be changed with erysipelas, the answer will be yes. Replacement of antimicrobials is carried out if the antibiotic used does not give a positive result, or bacterial analysis indicates the presence of resistance of the pathogen to the previously prescribed drug.

Лечение трофических язв на ногах антибиотиками

Each of us at least once in life was injured with a violation of the integrity of the skin. Usually, even the deepest wound, if properly treated, heals within a month. The situation with trophic ulcers, which are formed mainly on the site of damage to blood vessels, is quite different. Such wounds heal much longer, and therefore the probability of their infection is much higher, which means that antibiotics for trophic ulcers in most cases are a harsh necessity, and not a whim of doctors wishing to be reinsured. It is another matter whether antimicrobial agents are always justified.

Trophic ulcers and their treatment

Trophic ulcer - this is not a simple wound, resulting from an injury. Doctors consider such ulceration as a result of tissue trophism, hence the name of long-term non-healing wounds. About the trophic ulcer is said, if the wound located on the lower (usually on the shin or foot), less often on the upper limbs does not tighten for 6 or more weeks or has a tendency to relapse of inflammation.

More than half of all cases of trophic ulcers are associated with varicose veins (varicose ulcers), in 7 patients out of 100, ulcers became a consequence of thrombophlebitis . In other cases, tissue damage is of an arterial or mixed nature.

Humanity has known the trophic ulcers for many years. During this time, many more or less effective methods of treating this pathology have been developed. However, before the advent of antibiotics, the problem was solved with great difficulty and appreciable losses. The high probability of infection in a long-term non-healing wound often led to infection of blood (sepsis) and gangrene , which required urgent and serious measures, including blood transfusions and limb amputations.

Antibiotics, prescribed for trophic ulcers, can avoid such unfortunate consequences. Depending on the condition of the wound, doctors prescribe various external drugs and preparations for internal ingestion in the form of injections and tablets.

Ideally, an antibiotic should be administered after bacteriological examination and detection of an infectious agent. However, this will take a lot of time, but in an acute period of the disease, when the wound becomes inflamed and suppurate, delay is fraught with complications (sepsis and spread of infection to other tissues of the body), and the local reaction can easily go into the systemic one, when alone with creams and solutions for the local application is indispensable.

In order not to lose valuable time, doctors prefer to immediately prescribe antibiotics, which are active against a large number of pathogens. The most commonly used drugs to which are sensitive are Staphylococcus aureus, Art. Epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, non-spore forming anaerobes and some other bacteria that are found in most cases in wounds. Preference is given to protected penicillins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and in severe cases of purulent wounds - fluoroquinolones.

In some cases, it is also possible to observe the attachment of a fungal infection, which is no longer controlled by antibiotics, but by special antifungal agents (often still combined with antibacterial agents).

Some of the above-described microorganisms are considered conditionally pathogenic and can live for a long time on the patient's body, not manifesting themselves in any way. Healthy skin has a sufficient protective barrier, allowing us to coexist peacefully with microbes, without experiencing any discomfort. Reducing the cellular immunity of the largest of the human organs allows bacteria not only to enter the organism through the wound, but also to multiply actively, causing pathological processes in them.

The whole problem is that more strains of pathogenic bacteria acquire resistance to antibiotics according to the principle: what does not kill us, it makes stronger. If antibiotics are used at every opportunity, especially without being puzzled by the question of whether they are effective against a particular microorganism, there is a high probability of aggravating the problem. It was the problem of antibiotic resistance that forced scientists to look for a way out of the situation in the form of combined drugs (for example, protected penicillins). However, the emergence of new resistant strains requires special attention from physicians to the problem.   

You can not prescribe antibiotics without bacteriological analysis. Moreover, the treatment of trophic ulcers should be carried out with constant monitoring of microflora in the wound. If the wound is not complicated by infection, it makes no sense to prescribe antibiotics, enough antiseptic dressings (in case of varicose veins - compression with the use of elastic bandages) and observance of hand and body hygiene.

Antibiotics prescribe only if the ulcer becomes inflamed, begins to increase in size, there is a purulent discharge. If the bacteriological analysis showed the presence of a strain resistant to the prescribed antibiotic strain, it is necessary to urgently change the drug for one that will be effective against the identified pathogen. It can be an antibiotic of both narrow and wide spectrum of action, after all, doctors often encounter the fact that the pathogenic microflora in the wound is characterized by enviable diversity.

It should be understood that trophic ulcers are a special kind of damage to body tissues. And it does not matter, only the skin and subcutaneous tissue are affected or the muscles and bones are drawn into the process. Healing of such a wound is a long process even without the absence of an infectious factor in it. In fact, antibiotics do not particularly affect the rate of cicatrization of the ulcer. They only prevent complications and spread of the infection through the body. So, they should be used only if there is a real risk of infection.

Taking antimicrobials just in case, the patient risks to earn other complications in the form of eczema, contact dermatitis, severe allergic reactions, disruption of the functioning of various organs and systems. It is also not necessary to resort to internal administration of antibiotics if the reaction is local and can be limited to external antimicrobial agents in the form of ointments and solutions.

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