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Immunological research in urology

Assignment of an immunogram to a urological patient means that the attending physician assumes the presence of disturbances in the immune system. Repeated bacterial, viral, fungal infections, allergic manifestations, systemic diseases can be signs of these disorders, which are characterized by a number of syndromes (infectious, oncological, allergic, autoimmune, lymphoproliferative).

The complement system

The complement system consists of 9 consecutively activated components and 3 inhibitors. This system plays an important role, especially with inflammation and the development of resistance to infectious agents.

Spontaneous test with NST

Spontaneous test with NST (nitrosinium tetrazolium) allows to evaluate the state of oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanism of phagocytes (granulocytes) of blood in vitro. It characterizes the state and degree of activation of the intracellular NADP-H-oxidase antibacterial system.

Investigation of phagocytosis

Phagocytosis is the absorption by the cell of large particles visible in a microscope (for example, microorganisms, large viruses, damaged cell bodies, etc.). The process of phagocytosis can be divided into two phases. In the first phase, the particles bind to the surface of the membrane. In the second phase, the actual absorption of the particle and its further destruction occur.

Stimulated reaction of blast transformation of lymphocytes with mitogens

The functional activity of T and B lymphocytes is judged by the reaction of blast transformation of lymphocytes with the use of mitogens - PHA, ConA, latex, lipopolysaccharides, etc.

Spontaneous reaction of blast transformation of lymphocytes

Spontaneous blast transformation of lymphocytes is the ability of lymphocytes to transform without stimulation. The study is performed to evaluate the functional activity of T lymphocytes.

The reaction of inhibition of migration of leukocytes in the blood

The reaction of inhibition of migration of leukocytes allows one to assess the ability of T-lymphocytes to produce lymphokines in response to antigenic stimulation. This test evaluating the functional activity of T-lymphocytes can be used to diagnose immunological failure (reaction with mitogens), hypersensitivity (allergies) of delayed type (reaction with a specific antigen or allergen).

NK-lymphocytes (CD56) in the blood

CD56-lymphocytes are cell-effectors of cellular immunity, responsible for antiviral, antitumor and transplantation immunity (see above CD16-lymphocytes). Reducing the number of CD56-lymphocytes leads to the development of cancer and weighting of the course of viral infections.

T-lymphocytes with interleukin-2 (CD25) receptors in the blood

CD25 - activated T-lymphocytes, stimulating antibody formation and cytotoxicity. This indicator reflects the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate and differentiate and characterizes the functional state of activated T-lymphocytes.

NK-lymphocytes (CD16) in the blood

CD16-lymphocytes are effector cells responsible for antitumor, antiviral and transplantation immunity. NK cells are a separate population of lymphocytes, they differ from T and B lymphocytes both in origin and in functional properties and surface receptors (in humans there are 2 subpopulations - CD16 and CD56).

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